Viola is a tool for the development and support of visual interactive media applications. Possible viola applications range from a simple clock to a World Wide Web hypermedia browser (ViolaWWW).
ViolaWWW is what most people equate with "Viola". It's a convenient association, but it is important to keep in mind that ViolaWWW (the Viola-based World Wide Web browser) is just an application, albeit the most significant, of the Viola toolkit/language system. And, that Viola can be used to build many other applications.
This paper will briefly gloss over the basics of the Viola
At the basic level, the Viola system is a combination of the following major subsytems:
The basic motivation for an object model is to control complexity: to provide a relatively simple way of data encapsualization; for improving the size scalability and reusability.
The single inheritance classing model used in viola defines the basic types, or "classes", of object instances. Many of these predefined class types happen to be GUI oriented, because of the current application emphasis on hypermedia. But, many classes are non-visual and have nothing to do with GUIs.
An object model is enforced to control complexity: to provide a relatively simple way of data encapsualization; for improving the scalability and reusability of viola applications; for network distribution of applications (distintive objects as addressable resources); and for security (for confining operating scope of imported objects).
Shown below is the Viola class hierarchy tree. Note that "cosmic" class is the root of the hierarchy.
Each new class may define new attributes, and all classes inherit all attributes from the "super" (hierarchy ancestor) class. So, every object would have more or less the same sets of attributes, depending on the class of the object.
Among other things, this inheritance behaviour is useful for code sharing among the classes.
This class hierarchy may seem deficient compared to the GUIs provided by toolkits like Motif. But, it's actually not as deficient as it seems. Viola does not require the hard coding of, for example, dialog boxes, to achieve the same functionality -- many complex GUIs can be composed out of primitive elements, dynamically. To build a dialog box, a script could be written to create the necessary objects, and combine them together to constitute a dialog box.
For instance, ViolaWWW started out having a hardcoded "HTML" widget class (subclassed from the general text field). But the design was soon generalized such that it became practical to generate the rendering for a HTML document page by combining the more primitive GUIs. Although this more generalized approach isn't as easily efficient as a specialized HTML widget, there are many long term benefits such as the ability to dynamically plug in/out modules. For example, coupled with a stylesheet, it's possible to dynamically remap the HTML tag elements to different rendering objects.
To better show what a viola object is, consider this listing:
It is the file level representation of a
And this is what that object description instantiates to:
(If this were rendering on ViolaWWW, the button could actually be live on this document page!)
This "Hello World" example is obviously a very simple viola application that consists of only one object. A significant viola application, such as the ViolaWWW for example, consists of about 400 objects-- around 150 core objects that make up the WWW browser, and about 250 supporting objects that are specific to WWW data types such as HTML, etc.
Viola is very much message driven. Messages may be generated by a number of ways. A message is typically caused by the user interacting with a graphical user interface object, but it could also be generated by other objects, or by a timer facility. Through a communications facility such as the socket, a message may also be generated from a remote source on the network.
In the above ``Hello, world!'' example, when the button is clicked on, that button object "hello" will eventually receive a "buttonRelease" message. At that time, the object's script will be executed, and according to the script, a bell will be sounded.
Almost every viola object has such message handlers that catch the message it's interested in. Upon receiving a message, an object typically does some work, and/or generates more messages for other objects.
If an object does not have any message handlers, the message will simply
``fall thru'' the object, and (by way of
This default behaviour is described in what's called the 'classScript'.
It's just a script that is common and shared among all objects of the
same class, and is executed when the
But as you see in the script, we have trapped the "buttonRelease" message to make a sound, before letting the flow of control go to the usual action.
So, a typical viola application consists of a collection of objects interacting -- generating, receiving, and delegating messages -- with each other, and with the user.
As apparent in the example above, the viola scripting language is C-like
in syntax. The language supports very few constructs, such as
The commands like
All objects can be individually programmed using the scripting language. Each object is essentially its own interpretive environment, and each object is its own variable scope. So, an object only affects its own variable values and can not directly affect other objects' variables, thus minimizing side effects.
Having an encapsulated mini environment is useful not only for organizational purposes, but is also useful for enforcing security. This is particularly relevant in the Internet scaled World Wide Web context.
The ViolaWWW browser application has provisions for treating viola application files just as any WWW document-- transport via HTTP, and render mini viola applications as if they're any web data. This is very powerful, but also raises security concerns.
So, to protect the user's system from any possibly dangerous scripts, ViolaWWW will mark any objects that is imported from remote sources to be "untrusted". In this way, an imported object may do whatever it's programmed to do within its own little environment without being able to adversely affect other environments (theoretically). Also, since viola interpreter would then be able to distinquish the "untrusted" objects from the native "trusted" objects, it can limit the untrusted objects' operating system priviledges accordingly (ie: the interpreter will disallow untrusted object from invoking file system and other potentially sensitive methods or sub interpreters).
For optimization, object scripts are compiled into
Along side the development of the Viola language/toolkit
An early application of viola: an electronic version of the resource
catalog portion of the book
This application uses HyperCard style card-flipping technique to flip among four basic screen layouts. As it was intended for a kiosk type setting, the user interface is very specific and limited (compared to a general hypertext browser). But, the rendering code, the objects responsible for the page display, is shared by this application and the ViolaWWW browser application. Basically, just the user interface shell is different.
It's interesting to note that this application was developed with HMML (pre HTML+), and at the time a binary file format of HMML was used. This method has been abandoned, however, at least for now.
This is an electronic book navigator application that works in conjunction with a document renderer (ViolaWWW). This application is basically a Table Of Contents navigator that lets the user browse the section titles, and selecting a title causes ViolaWWW to render the corresponding section page.
The browser/navigator also has a front-end to WAIS for searching within the book.
[Screendump to be inserted here once this application is revived once again]
[Note: the GUI design is of 1992 origin, but the rendering capability shown is about '93]
The ``ViolaWWW'' application is the first X Windows based World Wide Web hypertext browser made available to the WWW community (mid 1992).
Since then, work on ViolaWWW has been on the next generation HTML (HTML 3.0, while the standard is still evolving). The latest (1994) generation of the ViolaWWW browser handles the standard HTML, including input-forms, tables, and some very rudimentary math equation support.
In addition to the standard HTML 3.0, the latest ViolaWWW has added some extensions for greater (than the current generation of Web browsers) formatting capabilities and for embedding programmable objects in documents. And, it now also comes with an optional version that uses the Motif toolkit for the front-end.
Here are some snapshots showing some formatting capablities in ViolaWWW:
Clicking on the folder icon causes the list to expand or shrink. A listing on a page is no longer just static, but can be dynamic.
One of the viola extensions to HTML provides richer formatting capabilities than other current web browsers. Along with the new container model in HTML 3.0, the added <HPANE> tag is essentially a simple geometry management device that lets one format containers (ie: sections of text) side by side, nested, and can take max/min width constraint parameter.
Viola's language and toolkit allows ViolaWWW to render documents with embedded viola objects. Although the viola language is not part of the World Wide Web standard (yet?), having this capability provides a powerful extension mechanism to the basic HTML.
For example, if the HTML's input-forms do not do exactly what you want, you have the option to build a mini customized input-form application. And it could have special scripts to check for the validity of the entered data before even making a connection to the server.
Or, if your document needs to show data that is continuously updated, you could build a small application such as this which display the CPU load of a machine. Note that only the graph field is continuously updated, but not the rest of the document.
Other possible applications include front-ends to the stock market quotes, new wire updates, tele-video style service, etc.
Here's another example of a mini interactive application that is embedded into a HTML document. It's a chess board in which the chess pieces are actually active and movable. And, illegal moves can be checked and denied straight off by the intelligence of the scripts in the application. Given more work, this chess board application can front-end a chess server, connected to it using the socket facility in viola.
What follows is a screendump of a demo of an embedded viola application that lets readers of this HTML page communicate by typing or drawing. Like the chess board application above, this chat application can stand-alone (and have nothing to do with the World Wide Web), or be embedded into a HTML document.
By the way, to make this possible, a multi-threaded/persistent server was written to act as a message relay (and to handle HTTP as well).
This next mini application front-ends a graphing process (on the same machine as the viola process). An important thing to note is that, like all the other document-embeddable mini applications shown, no special modification to the viola engine is required for ViolaWWW to support them. All the bindings are done via the viola language, provided that the necessary primitives are available in the interperter, of course.
Put it another way, because of the scripting capability, the ViolaWWW browser has become very flexible, and can take on many new features dynamically. C-code patches and re-compilation of the browser can frequently be avoided.
This attribute can be very important for several reasons. It keeps the size of the core software small, yet can grow dynamically as less frequently used features are ocassionally used, or as new accessories/components are added.
Such new accessories can be as simple as little applets that accompany documents, or conceivably as complicated as a news or mail reader. An analogy is how Emacs's programming environment allows that text editor to become much more than just a text editor.
Not only can mini applications be embedded inside of documents, they can even be plugged into the ViolaWWW's "toolbar".
The following picture shows a "bookmark tool" that acts as a mini table of contents for the page. In this case, the bookmark is linked to the document (by using the <LINK> tag of HTML 3.0), and the bookmark will appear and disappear with the document.
One can imagine many plug-in accessories/applets/tools possible with this facility. Like, a self guiding slideshow tool. Or, document set specific navigational tools/icons that are not pasted onto the page so that the navigational icons don't scroll away from view. Etc.
The Viola language/toolkit system provides an environment where applications are composed of groups of objects, where objects interact, by message passing, with the user and with each other.
As more applications are developed, more reusable objects will be created. And development of successive applications will become easier and easier. One of the goals of the Viola project is to accumulate a collection of objects useful for constructing hypermedia applications.
The immediate future direction of Viola development will continue to aim towards the path of hypermedia applications, with the World Wide Web as the document/object network transport infrastructure.
Pei Y. Wei (email@example.com)
R&D, Digital Medial Group
O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
August 16, 1994.